تربية الدواجن

الإفتراس في الدواجن Cannibalism

توجد العديد من أشكال الإفتراس التي تحدث في كل من الدجاج وطيور الصيد والتي يتم تربيتها حبيسة سواء كانت في حظائر مفتوحة أو مغلقة، وقد ترجع تلك الحالة لأسباب عدة من أهمها: الزحام، وارتفاع درجة الحرارة، ونقص البروتين والأملاح المعدنية بالعليقة، وسوء التهوية، وقلة عدد المعالف والمساقي، وعدم التخلص من الطيور النافقة وبقائها فترة طويلة داخل الحظائر، وإصابة الطيور بالطفيليات الخارجية والتي تزيد من عصبيتها.

من أهم أشكال الإفتراس ما يلي:

1- نقر فتحة المجمع Vent picking

نقر فتحة المجمع أو المنطقة أسفل فتحة المجمع، تُعد من أشد حالات الإفتراس، وكثيرا ما تحدث في قطعان الدجاج البياض عالي الإنتاج، ويُعتبر انقلاب فتحة المجمع عقب وضع الدجاجة لبيضة كبيرة الحجم من أهم العوامل المشجعة على حدوث ظاهرة نقر أو افتراس فتحة المجمع.

2- نقر إصبع القدم Toe picking

هي ظاهره كثيراً ما تُشاهد في الكتاكيت الصغيرة نتيجة لإحساسها بالجوع وقلة التغذية، مما يُشجعها على نقر بعضها البعض.

3- نقر الرأس Head picking

ُ تحدث ظاهرة نقر الرأس نتيجة لإصابة العرف أو الداليات بجروح والتي ينتج عنها نزيف للدم مما يؤدي إلى إثارة الطيور الأخرى، مما يُشجعها على البدء في إفتراسُ الطائر المصاب.

4- الظهرالأزرق Blue-back

هي ظاهرة تحول لون الظهر في الرومي للون الأزرق أو الأسود، نتيجة لنقر ريش منطقة الظهر وتعرض تلك المنطقة لأشعة الشمس لفترة طويلة، والتي تحولها لهذا
اللون، كما أن هذه الظاهرة قد تنتج عن زحام الطيور خلال فترة الحضانة، وانخفاض مستوى الألياف في العليقة.

الوقاية والعلاج

تلافي أسباب الحدوث، وإجراء عملية قص للمنقار بشكل جيد عند عمر 9 -6 يوم، حيث يتم قص طرف المنقار العلوي و1/3 المنقار السفلي باستخدام جهاز قص المنقار، مع أهمية التأكيد على أن تلك العملية يجب أن تتم للطيور السليمة وتحت ظروف بيئية جيدة، بعيداً عن أي عوامل تسبب إجهاد الطيور

دمتم في رعاية الله وحفظه
م/أحمد يوغرى

تابع أيضاً: الدواجن والحرارة

م / احمد يوغرى

مهندس أمهات الدجاج اللاحم وباحث في علوم الدواجن

مقالات ذات صلة

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