أمراض تنفسية

امراض الدواجن التنفسية المزمنة (المايكوبلازما)

باحث معهد بحوث صحة الحيوان- معمل دمنهور

يعتبر ميكروب الميكوبلازما من أخطر الميكروبات التنفسية التي تصيب الدجاج  , وذلك لأن هذا الميكروب ليس من البكتيريا أو الفيروس ولكنه يجمع خصائص من كلاهما , حيث انه لايحاط بجدار خلوي مثل البكتيريا ولذلك فان المضادات الحيوية التي تقضي على البكتيريا بتدمير الجدار الخلوي مثل البنيسيللين والسيفالوسبورين لا تؤثر علي ميكروب الميكوبلازما ويعتبر من أهم الأمراض الاقتصادية التي تصيب الدواجن وتحدث خسائر فادحة في القطيع 0

تمتلك الميكوبلازما خاصية الإلتصاق بالأغشية الطلائية للجهاز التنفسي نتيجة الشكل التركيبي لها ، وتقوم بإفراز نواتج أيضية وإنزيمات سامة لهذه الأغشية مما يسبب تهتك والتهابات هذه الخلايا الطلائية مما ينتج عنه الأعراض والأصوات التنفسية المعروفة
العامل المسبب للمرض :

دواجن مريضة

أسماء أخري للمرض : المرض التنفسي المزمن – التهاب الأكياس الهوائية

الأعراض الظاهرية للمرض :

: تبدأ الأعراض في الظهور في الدجاج البياض عند عمر 3 الي 6 أسابيع , أما في الدجاج البياض تبدأ الأصابة عند عمر 5 الي 7 أشهر أي في بداية فترة انتاج البيض. تكون معظم الأعراض تنفسية وتكون في صورة

  1. افرازات من الجيوب الأنفية.
  2. صوت خنفرة أو شحر0
  3. ضيق التنفس- عطس.0
  4. مد رأس الطائر الي الأمام وفتح فمه وتجمع الطيور في منطقة دافئة0
  5. افرازات مائية في العين والانف. – التهاب في جفن العين0
  6. وجود تورم في عين واحدة او في كلتا العينين نتيجة تجمع الافرازات في الجيوب الجبهية وفي الحالات الشديدة تكون العين مقفولة 0
  7. . في حالة حدوث اصابة ثانوية مثل النيوكاسل او الاي بي أو الايكولاي يكون المرض أكثر خطورة ويرتفع معدل النافق في القطيع.

الصفة التشريحية للمرض

وعند تشريح الفراخ النافقة نجد التهاب في الجيوب الأنفية والجبهية وخروج افرازات مائية عند الضغط عليها و التهاب في جفون العين وامتلائها برغاوي مائية ووجود افرازات بها فيبرين في القصبة الهوائية و التهاب الأكياس الهوائية و في حالة الاصابة بعدوي ثانوية مثل الايكولاي نلاحظ وجود عتامة وافرازات مخاطية في الأكياس الهوائية وايضا وجود غشاء أبيض حول القلب والكبد و من خلال الأعراض الظاهرية والصفة التشريحية يجب تمييز المرض عن الأمراض الأخري التي تسبب أعراض تنفسية مشابهة مثل  مرض الانفلوانزا ويسببه فيروس الانفلوانزا avian influenza و مرض الكوريزا المعدي I  و مرض الكوليرا ويسببه بكتيريا باستيريلا 0

طرق انتقال المرض :

ينتقل الميكروب بصورة أفقية من الطيور المصابة الي الطيور السليمة ويعتبر المصدر الرئيسي للعدوى 0

عن طريق الاحتكاك المباشر أو عن طريق الجهاز التنفسي من خلال الافرازات الأنفية0

م / سامح كمال

مهندس زراعي أخصائي دواجن أمهات ولاحم بمصر - والمملكة العربية السعودية مؤسس موقع Hen House

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