تربية دجاج الامهات

عملية التدريج grading في أمهات التسمين بداية من 25-28 يوم

الهدف:

  • التعامل مع القطيع حسب الأوزان لسهولة التحكم بها والسيطرة على تجانس القطيع والأوزان فى الطيور وسهولة تحديد العلف الخاص بها.
ميزان ديجتال متقدم لوزن الطيور يستطيع من خلاله حساب متوسط الوزن والتجانس
ميزان قرصي يدوي لوزن الطيور خلال عملية التدريج

بدء عملية التدريج عند عمر 25-28 يوم

عملية التدريج تتم في الإناث مرتين

  • ›        الأولى عند  عمر 25-28 يوم والثانية عند الأسبوع 10-12 للإناث  وتعتمد في إجرائها على درجة تجانس العنبر

        وفى الذكور تتم 3مرات

  • عند عمر 25 يوم والمرة الثانية تتم فى بداية الأسبوع العاشر من العمر والثالثة عند الأسبوع 17 – 18
  • يراعى عند الأسبوع السادس فرز الذكور under والغير صالحه (وهي التي تكون اقل من متوسط وزن العنبر (الوزن القياسي ) 200جم ويتم التخلص منها بالبيع أو الإعدام في وجود لجنه على الأسبوع العاشر) .
  • يتم وضعها في تحجيزه منفصله داخل تحجيزه الطيورunder  .

عملية التدريج من داخل العنبر بالميزان

فنيات هامـــــــــة أثناء التدريج

  • عند بداية التدريج نتخلص من الأفراد الغير صالحة والفرزة بالاعدام ثم يتم دمج العنبر كوحدة واحدة
  • يتم وزن عينة عشوائية من العنبر تقدر بحوالى 5-8% من الطيور باستخدام ميزان حساسيه 1 جم .
  • من عينة الوزن يتم حساب متوسط الوزن للعنبر (عينة الوزن كبيرة وممثلة للعنبر )
  • يتم حساب نسبة ال under   و ال over  بواسطة ضرب متوسط الوزن فى 90% يكون اقل منه مدى الunder   ثم يتم ضرب هذا المتوسط فى 110% الاعلى منه مدى ال over
  • يتم تقسيم العنبر الى ثلاث أجزاء بالحواجز يوضع
  • فى اول حاجز  (بداية العنبر )   الطيور الاقل فى الوزن  وتسمى under
  •  ثم الحاجز التالى  يودع الطيور التى فى الوزن القياسى وتسمى ال  medium
  •  ثم يتم ايداع الطيور الاعلى فى الوزن بالحاجز الاخير وتسمى ovar
  • يتم وزن طيور الوزن القياسى  ال medium  كلها بعد تحجيزها  (كما سبق شرحه) ويتم اخراج الطيور الاقل من الوزن القياسى لتحجيزة الunder   واخراج الطيور الاعلى من الوزن القياسى لتحجيزة ال over  وهذا كعمل دورى اثناء التحصينات والعلف الصباحى.

تعديـل الكثافـة

  • الهدف:
  • تعديل الكثافات بين العنابر حتى يتحقق تجانس لتوزيع الطيور بين العنابروذلك:
  • الحفاظ على عدد الطيور فى المتر المربع الاناث منفصلة عن الذكور
  • فصل السلالات فى عملية تعديل الكثافات
  • يتم تعديل الكثافة بعد تحصين الميكوبلازما فيماعدا القطيع الخالي 100%
  • أو في حاله عدم تحصين المايكوبلازما يتم تعديل الكثافه على الأسبوع الرابع قبل اجراء عمليه التدريج
  • يتم حساب عدد الطيور لكل مجموعة على حدة من المجموعات الموضحة اعلى من حيث الاعمار المتقاربة
  • يحسب لكل مجموعة منها عدد الطيور للمتر المربع ويحسب الاناث بمفردها والذكور بمفردها
  • بعد ذلك يتم اخذ الأعداد الزيادة من العنابر الأعلى كثافة الى الأقل فى الكثافة
  • يتم توحيد عدد الطيور بالمتر المربع لكل مجموعة على حدة كما تم ذكره
  • يراعى عند نقل الطيور بين العنابر تجنب اى اجهاد (حرارة عالية او منخفضة او صدمات إضاءة او شيل الطيور بشكل خاطئ يسبب الجروح اوالكدمات او النفوق) يتم اعطاء فيتامين ك3 بمعدل 6-8 ملليجرام يومين (قبل النقل و يوم النقل ) .
  • الأخذ فى الاعتبار نقل الطيور المتقاربة فى الوزن بين العنابر حتى لا نخسر نسبة التجانس التى تم تحقيقها حيث يؤخذ الافراد التى داخلة فى متوسط وزن العنبر

م/عبد الرحيم موسي

مهندس دواجن في مصر والسعودية وباحث في علوم الدواجن

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